1. In the previous lesson it became apparent that in
order for any innovative medical breakthroughs to occur,
scientists and physicians needed to test their ideas
on human subjects at some point. This raises ethical
concerns on the issue of consent and human subjects.
Ask the following question: Would you have liked to
be the person receiving the blood transfusion performed
by James Blundell in 1929 knowing that the idea of
types had not been discovered yet? What if you were
really ill and desperately needed help?
This is a valid dilemma. Pose the following questions
question on different overheads and fill
in with discussion content) and allow for discussion:
How do we convince people to be a part of experiments
that might help but may also have some negative
impact(s) or may not be helpful at all?
b. Should we tell patients that they are part of
an experiment? Why or why not?
c. Do you think people would want to know that
they are a part of an experiment?
d. Is ignorance bliss?
e. Can you trust your physician if he/she really
wants the experiment to take place?
Using the previous research (posters), student groups
identify problems with medical
experimentation procedures. They will discuss
how to address those problems.
Place students in groups of 4-5 and have them write down
ideas for how they would
like to be
they were ill.
Take it a step further and write down ideas on how they
would like to be treated
participate in an experiment.
Take those ideas and start creating a Patient’s
Rights Charter list (aim for a list of
5-10 rights per group).
When done, as a class, negotiate how best
to create a Class Charter for Patient’s
Rights (no limit on final number of rights).
One student can write down
the ideas on an overhead while the discussion
and negotiations take place.
When all ideas are exhausted, create a poster
of the charter and mount on
10. Students will now compare their
charter to the Informed Consent laws.
Define Informed Consent (Overhead page 1a) and explain
that they are
to protect participants of clinical
trials (what we call modern medical
Define Clinical Trials (Overhead page 1a) – modern
equivalent of medical experimentation
using human subjects and animals as well. Rule of Thumb:
Risks cannot outweigh
Show pages 1b and 1c of Overhead 1 and go over the additional
of an informed
Did the class charter cover the clinical trial participation
in pages 1b and
1c of Overhead 1?
How about the right to leave a study at any time?
b. How about the right to
be continually informed
on the study
c. How about the formation
of the some sort of review
to review proposals for
medical clinical trials?
review proposals and represent
various interest groups
such as medical personnel,
patients, citizens, etc.)
The class may want to come
up with a new Class Patient’s Rights Charter incorporating
what they have learned from the materials seen on Overhead