1. Opener: Ask the class the following question (this may
be written on the board ahead of time): “What
is the purpose of the introductory and concluding paragraphs
of your essay? What are the components of each? Create
a double column chart in which you briefly outline
the purposes and components of each paragraph.” Allow
the class about 10 minutes for this starter activity.
Set up a double column chart on the board and ask
student input in filling in the two columns
titled “introduction” and “conclusion”.
Review the information the class has gathered, and
see that they understand the purposes and components
of each paragraph.
Mini-Lesson: In this part of the lesson, students will
read a sample essay introduction
which you will hand out. You may
use one of your own devising, borrow from a writing manual,
or use the one below:
Don’t Take That Breath!
People who breathe high levels of CO can develop vision
problems, reduced ability to work or learn, reduced
and difficulty performing complex tasks. At extremely
high levels, CO is poisonous and can cause death.“ *
you ever thought about what harm you might be doing
to yourself every time you take a breath? If you’re
like most people, you probably don’t even worry
about what goes into your lungs with each inhalation.
If you live in or
near a city, however, you might want to think about what
the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) has to say
dangerous effects of air pollution on human health. Do
you know that carbon monoxide is only one of six major
of our air? Where do these pollutants originate? What
are the hazardous effects of breathing in this smoggy
And finally, what can we do about it? Let us first consider
the six major pollutants that air quality agencies have
named as dangerous to us and our environment and where
air wreckers come from.
*Quote taken from http://www.epa.gov/air/urbanair/co/hlth1.html
Give the students a few minutes to read the sample intro
and then ask them the following questions:
do you notice about this introduction? (it has three
you identify the three components of this introduction?
(it has a title, a quote or attention
that, and then the intro paragraph follows)
do you notice about the title? (it’s catchy)
the quote. What is its purpose? (to get the reader’s
attention with an important fact relating
to the essay topic)
the author succeed in getting your attention?
(answers will vary)
the author give us a blueprint for what he will discuss
in his essay?
will he speak about in his three body paragraphs? (the
six major air pollutants,
effects, and what we can do to minimize
Now that students have a good idea of how to set
up their intro paragraphs, briefly
review the purposes of the concluding paragraph.
Most students understand that the conclusion should
the main points raised in the essay, but remind
them that it should not be repetitive.
Also note that the
conclusion should include some sort
of call to
action - spell out exactly what the reader should
do after reading the essay in order to make a difference
in this situation.
Remind the students to review their own essays
carefully to see that their introductory and concluding paragraphs
fit the criteria explained during the lesson.
be working on their final project essays at home, and no additional
homework need be assigned.